Campaign spending in Michigan hit a new record during the 2018 election cycle, with about $80 million being spent in 14 races for the U.S. House of Representatives. Of that $80 million, about $19 million was spent trying to win former Congressman Dave Trott's 11th district seat (Birmingham, Bloomfield Hills, Rochester Hills, western Oakland, parts of western Wayne County). About $28.3 million was spent for the 8th Congressional district seat, making it the fifth most expensive Congressional race in the country – and the most expensive in Michigan history. The numbers, compiled by the Michigan Campaign Finance Network, include millions of dollars from independent PACs that can raise and spend unlimited funds. PACs contributed about $7.3 million to 11th District campaign, which was won by Democrat Haley Stevens, with about $4.1 million raised by Stevens, $2.6 million by Republican challenger Lena Epstein (including $1 million of self-funding). Most of the $7.3 million was spent to support Stevens, including $2.6 million from Independence USA PAC and $1.4 million from the House Majority PAC. Independent support for Epstein totaled about $1.2 million, with losing primary candidates and PACs spending about $4.7 million on the primary. Congresswoman Elissa Slotkin raised about $7.4 million in her campaign for former Congressman Mike Bishop's (R-Rochester, Rochester Hills) 8th district, but received another $9.7 million in outside support. Bishop, who raised about $4 million, received about $6.9 million in outside support. Outside spending trends in Michigan followed a national trend, with eight of the top 10 most expensive races receiving more outside money than that raised by candidates.